David E. Jarvis, Yung Shwen Ho, Damien J. Lightfoot, Sandra M. Schmöckel, Bo Li, Theo J. A. Borm, Hajime Ohyanagi, Katsuhiko Mineta, Craig T. Michell, Noha Saber, Najeh M. Kharbatia, Ryan R. Rupper, Aaron R. Sharp, Nadine Dally, Berin A. Boughton, Yong H. Woo, Ge Gao, Elio G. W. M. Schijlen, Xiujie Guo, Afaque A. Momin, Sónia Negrão, Salim Al-Babili, Christoph Gehring, Ute Roessner, Christian Jung, Kevin Murphy, Stefan T. Arold, Takashi Gojobori, C. Gerard van der Linden, Eibertus N. van Loo, Eric N. Jellen, Peter J. Maughan & Mark Tester. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa. Nature. doi:10.1038/nature21370
Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a highquality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule realtime sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.