Carotenoids are an important source of metabolites with regulatory function, which include the plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones (SLs), and several recently identified growth regulators and signaling molecules. These carotenoid-derivatives originate from oxidative breakdown of double bonds in the carotenoid polyene, a common metabolic process that gives rise to diverse carbonyl cleavage-products known as apocarotenoids. Apocarotenoids exert biologically important functions in all taxa. In plants, they are a major regulator of plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic environmental stimuli, and mediate plant’s communication with surrounding organisms. In this article, we provide a general overview on the biology of plant apocarotenoids, focusing on ABA, SLs, and recently identified apocarotenoid growth regulators. Following an introduction on carotenoids, we describe plant apocarotenoid biosynthesis, signal transduction, and evolution and summarize their biological functions. Moreover, we discuss the evolution of these intriguing metabolites, which has not been adequately addressed in the literature.