Plants release a set of chemical compounds, called exudates, into the rhizosphere, under normal conditions and in response to environmental stimuli and surrounding soil organisms. Plant root exudates play indispensable roles in inhibiting the growth of harmful microorganisms, while also promoting the growth of beneficial microbes and attracting symbiotic partners. Root exudates contain a complex array of primary and specialized metabolites. Some of these chemicals are only found in certain plant species for shaping the microbial community in the rhizosphere. Comprehensive understanding of plant root exudates has numerous applications from basic sciences to enhancing crop yield, production of stress-tolerant crops, and phytoremediation. This review summarizes the metabolomics workflow for determining the composition of root exudates, from sample preparation to data acquisition and analysis. We also discuss recent advances in the existing analytical methods and future perspectives of metabolite analysis.