Strigolactones (SLs) are a plant hormone inhibiting shoot branching/tillering and a rhizospheric, chemical signal that triggers seed germination of the noxious root parasitic plant Striga and mediates symbiosis with beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Identifying specific roles of canonical and noncanonical SLs, the two SL subfamilies, is important for developing Striga-resistant cereals and for engineering plant architecture. Here, we report that rice mutants lacking canonical SLs do not show the shoot phenotypes known for SL-deficient plants, exhibiting only a delay in establishing arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, but release exudates with a significantly decreased Striga seed-germinating activity. Blocking the biosynthesis of canonical SLs by TIS108, a specific enzyme inhibitor, significantly lowered Striga infestation without affecting rice growth. These results indicate that canonical SLs are not the determinant of shoot architecture and pave the way for increasing crop resistance by gene editing or chemical treatment.